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MBA – PM0013 :   List & explain the 3 major issues related to delegation which need close scrutiny.

Answer :- The issues relating to delegation which need close scrutiny are:

1. What to delegate?

2. When to delegate?

3. How to delegate?

What to Delegate:

Delegation does not take place when a project manager is merely asked to go ahead with a project without authority. The project manager, in that case, is being merely asked to do a task and not manage a task. He cannot be expected to assume responsibility nor held accountable for results. He has nothing to sub-delegate nor can he demand results from others.

Authority has to be granted to make commit­ments, use resources, issue instructions, demand adherence and take necessary actions for the performance of tasks. As far as possible delegation should be in writing, and in case of institutional delegation this should always be in writing, it is true that some authority can be acquired by individuals by virtue of personal qualities and technical competence. How­ever, this can rarely happen between institutions. Institutional delegation has not only to be in writing and appear formal but should contain legal overtones too.

When authority is delegated a managerial position is created. The recipient of the authority now becomes a manager and can be expected to perform managerial functions. But mere assignment of the task and delegation of authority will not ensure performance unless the recipient considers it his moral obligation to produce results. This is what all of us refer to as responsibility, and it must have become clear by now that this is not a thing which can be delegated in writing – this is something which one undertakes by himself.

Though, one may legitimately expect responsibility to be passed on concurrently with delegation of authority, yet it may not necessarily happen this way. Responsibility is an attitude of mind which can­not be passed on in writing; and to that extent the delegator, whatever authority he may pass on, will still be responsible for the tasks from which he cannot absolve himself.

Thus responsibility cannot be delegated, but only authority can be delegated, and to the extent necessary for the accomplishment of the task. And since authority, like money, has to be used for a cause, it must likewise be accounted for in order to ensure its best use. This is referred to as accountability.So when authority is delegated, the delegate remains account­able to the delegator about the use of the authority.

This can ensure compliance of the delegator’s plans and directives and enable the delegator to discharge his responsibilities. Further, because the delegate is accountable, he invariably assumes the responsibilities, matching the extent of authority he receives. Where this does not happen, rather than with­drawing authority the incumbent should be replaced; for authority, as we have discussed, is essential for the accomplishment of the task.

When to Delegate:

Delegation, whether institutional or individual, enhances one’s capability of doing things. One stands to gain from delegation:

1. When one is simply overburdened and cannot handle all the tasks in the required time though one has the know-how;

2. When one does not have the know-how and is not interested in building up the same as it may not be of any use in future;

3. When the job is so specialized that it is either not possible to build up the capability or build it by the time it is needed;

4. When someone can do it better qualitatively, economically and on time;

5. When the work is not secret, or when delegation will not cause problems even if it is a secret;

6. When the intention is to develop staff or growth of ancillary organizations and there are capable individuals and organizations available; and

7. When the work is routine and the delegator’s time can be more profitably utilized by diverting his attention from routine areas.

In practice, however, delegation may not take place even though the situation may be ideally suited for delegation. Project managers may not be delegated requisite authorities which, in turn, may reduce them to dummies incapable of functioning effectively. Some owner organizations may attempt doing everything themselves. They may even build up a full-fledged project engineering division even though they may not have further projects in the pipeline and their main business is only the operation of the plant and not engineering of the same.

The problems which one has to often confront in a project management situation are:

1. What tasks to retain and what to pass on? What authority needs to be delegated for the performance of the tasks being passed on?

2. How to package the work satisfactorily so that there is no overlap and also nothing is left uncovered?

3. How to establish the trustworthiness of the delegate with whom no working relation­ship ever existed in the past?

4. How much authority can be shared without risking failure? How to make the delegate fully accountable morally and legally?

5. Will the delegate assume responsibility matching the authority delegated? If not, what could be done to make him see reason?

6. Which controls to be installed? Would the procedures for control be acceptable to the delegate? Would the controls in any way inhibit the initiative of the delegate?

7. How could the interventions be planned so as not to be considered as unnecessary interferences by the delegate?

8. How to ensure continuous flow of communication and how to make it prompt, accu­rate and to the point?

9. How to motivate the delegate to assume total responsibility and give best performance commensurate with the authority delegated?

How to Delegate:

To get the most from delegation, the delegate must be given a complete picture of what he has to do, how to do it and how much authority he has to get it done. It is also necessary that the entire thing is put on record as otherwise the delegate would not know what the delegator has in mind and also the basis for accountability will not be established. It is also quite possible that one might overstep the authority delegated, not necessarily in his anxiety to get a task completed faster or better, but merely to satisfy his egoistic needs or hunger for power. Only written delegation can provide the delegator the power to discipline the delegate should the occasion so arise.

Delegation, whether at individual or institutional level, involves a certain amount of bargaining. The delegator may like to pass on a ‘hot potato’ but the delegate would not like to accept it unless the return would more than compensate the trouble. However, what the delegate would consider adequate compensation may vary, and unless the delegator has a few options it may indeed call for tough bargaining.

Delegation, thus, is not a simple and a casual affair. To realize best results both the delegator and the delegate must have a proper appreciation of what is to be delegated, when delegation is called for and how delegation has to be made. If delegation is not properly done it may boomerang on the delegator, and instead of helping will hinder the progress of work.

 

MBA – PM0013 :  what do we mean by developing a project team process. Enumerate the 5 stages of team development.

Answer:-Developing a project team process :-The process of developing project team is an activity that allows improving internal and external interactions of team members, developing their competencies and skills, and optimizing the overall team environment for the purpose of enhancing project performance.

The process of developing project team is associated with teamwork management considering all team building factors such as cultural diversity, team climate, and global environment. Teamwork management and team building should be organized and implemented in the context of clearly and timely stated communication between team members throughout the whole project life-cycle.

 

The five stages of team development are:

1. Forming: Forming is the process by which teams begin to form. This involves meeting of team members, and knowing about their project and responsibilities. The team members are inclined to work independently.

2. Storming: Storming involves the actual project management process. In this phase, the team goes through brain storming sessions to understand the project requirement and starts addressing the project work and the project management approach. This stage promises action. There is a struggle for project team control, and momentum builds as capable members take the lead positions in the project team. During this phase, the team members figure out the hierarchy of the team and the informal roles of team members.

3. Norming: Norming is working together, socialising, and providing constructive criticism. The team develops a strong commitment to the team’s goal and work to achieve it.

4. Performing: Performing means smooth movement of project development by a well-organised project team. The team members blend into their roles and focus on completing the project work as a team.

5. Adjourning: Adjourning implies completion of the project so that the team is ready for a new one.

MBA – PM0013 :   Write a note on human resource planning.

Answer:-A Project is a planned undertaking that requires a set of human tasks and activities toward achieving a specific objective within a defined time period.

Projects are temporary, though they may last from few hours to many years; a team project involves a group of people with complementary skills and experiences, working together to accomplish the goals and objectives of the project. The purpose of the team is to develop and execute a work plan that will meet the expectations of the project. Everyone on the team is committed and deducted tithe same thing meeting the goals of the project. Although the goals may be same, how the team elects to execute the work plan is variable. Different team runs the same project differently. This Variation is attributable to differences in people, process and interactions. The interactions of a team are dependent on the collective knowledge, skills, experiences, personalities, and behaviors of the group. Each person has personal preferences regarding howto run the project and how to work within the project,

People have different work and communication styles, and these personal preferences and differences represent the diversity of the team. All team members want the same thing (to achieve the project goals), but each goes after it differently due to their diversity. This can generate both positive and negative interactions. How well we mange human interactions are the key to the success of any project. This is been grouped into six general areas. ·

Problem solving· Decision making· Conflict resolution· Consensus building· Brainstorming· Team meetings Human Resource planning is an organized way to ensure that organizations employ the right people. Human Resource planning is the staffing management plan which illustrates how and when the team members are added/removed from the team. Human Resource planning is utilized to decide and recognize. Human Resources with the necessary skills are essential forthe success of a project. Human Resource planning must think and plan for these factors and widen Human Resource options.

The inputs for creating a Human Resource (HR) plan are :

Enterprise environmental factors:

The enterprise environmental factors comprises of individuals of an organization interacting and relating with one another. The enterpriseenvironmental factors that play a major role includes are existing organizational culture,knowing how different technical disciplines work, existing Human Resources and policies andprocedures, interpersonal, logical and political issues with respect to Human Resources.

Organizational culture 

Organizational culture is an idea in the field of organizational studiesand management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values(personal and cultural values) of an organization. It is defined as “the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that controls the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization.

 MBA – PM0013 :  List and explain in brief the key features of a project.

Answer: – The key features of a project are:

Planning utilities (product based planning for instance- product breakdown structure, product flow diagram)

– Gantt chart

– Network diagram

– Resource management

– Risk management

– Issue management

– Daily log (optional)

– Calendar

– Work packages

– Checkpoints

– Snapshots

– Cost items (optional)

– Resource load diagram

– Cost diagram

– Reports There are other features of  PM

software such as integration with mail server, Share Point andother collaboration portals.

There are a lot of products for project management. Some include

-Microsoft Project

-Easy Projects .NET

-P2ware Planner

-FogBugzA project plan can be considered to have five key characteristics that have to be managed:

– Scope: defines what will be covered in a project.

– Resource: what can be used to meet the scope.

– Time: what tasks are to be undertaken and when.

-Quality: the spread or deviation allowed from a desired standard.

– Risk: defines in advance what may happen to drive the plan off course, and what will be done to recover the situation.

MBA – PM0013 :   Describe the following conflict resolution styles

a. Avoidant Approach

b. Accommodating Approach

c. Consensus Approach

d. Collaborative Approach

Answer :

a)Avoidant Approach

: Some people will do anything to avoid a direct confrontation. Theyagree even though they are opposed to the outcome. This style cannot be tolerated on theproject team. Each persons input and opinion must be sought. It is the responsibility of theproject manager to make sure that this happens. A simple device is to ask each team memberin turn what he or she thinks about the situation and what he or she suggests be done about it.Often this approach will diffuse any direct confrontation between two individuals on the team.

 

b) Accommodating Approach:

Here, one party is ready for keeping the psychological dooropen to the other party. When the issue is more important to oneself than to the other person,this strategy works better under such situations. Forgetting or Forgiving on one issue may bekey to moving the conflict to a new level where issues may be discussed better. It can be auseful, but a temporary fix among the parties.

 

c) Consensus Approach:

Consensus building is a process that a team can follow to reach agreement on which alternativeto proceed with for the item (action, decision, and so forth) under consideration. Theagreement is not reached by a majority vote, or any vote for that matter. Rather, theagreement is reached through discussion, whereby each participant reaches a point when he orshe has no serious disagreement with the decision that is about to be taken. The decision willhave been revised several times for the participants to reach that point.

(d) Collaborative approach:

In this approach, the team looks for win-win opportunities. The approach seeks out a commonground as the basis for moving ahead to a solution. This approach encourages each teammember to put his or her opinions on the table and not avoid the conflict that may result. Atthe same time, team members do not seek to create conflict unnecessarily. The approach isConstructive, not destructive.

MBA – PM0013 :   Write short notes on

a. McGregor’s theory

b. Maslow’s Theory

c. Precedence diagramming method Staffing Management Plan

d. Dependency determination

Answer:- Answer:

a. McGregor’s theory :

McGregor’s Theory X and Y are appealing to managers and dramatically demonstrate the divergence in management viewpoints toward employees. As such, Theory X and Y have been extremely helpful in promoting management understanding of supervisory styles and employee motivational assumptions.

There are two aspects of McGregor’s Theory:

 

o X theory

o Y theory

 

X theory:

1. Employees normally do not like to work and will try to avoid it

2. Since employees do not like working, they have to be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to motivate them to work

3. The average employee is lazy, shuns responsibility, is not ambitious, needs direction and principally desires security

 

Y theory:

1. Work is as natural as play and therefore people desire to work

2. Employees are responsible for accomplishing their own work objectives

3. Comparable personal rewards are important for employee commitment to achieve work goals

4. Under favorable conditions, the average employee will seek and accept responsibility

5. Employees can be innovative in solving organisational problems

6. Most organisations utilise only a small proportion of their employees’ abilities

 

b. Maslow’s Theory :

The focus on human influences in organisations was reflected most noticeably by the integration of Abraham Maslow’s “hierarchy of human needs” into organisation theory.

Maslow’s theories have two important implications for organisation theory:

 

1. People have different needs and are therefore motivated by different incentives to achieve organisational objectives

2. People’s needs change predictably over time, which means that – new needs arise as the needs of people lower in the hierarchy are met

The various levels of Maslow’s theory are:

 

 

c. Precedence diagramming method Staffing Management Plan :

 

It is an important output of the Human Resource planning process which establishes the timing and methods for meeting project Human Resource requirements. The components of the Staffing management plan are:

  • Staff acquisition – Staff acquisition describes how the project will be staffed, where the team will be working and the level of expertise needed.
  • Resource calendars – The resource calendars show the timeframes for the project team members either individually or collectively when resources are available for the project.
  • Release criteria – Release criteria lists the method and timing of releasing team member.
  • Training needs – Training needs is a plan which explains how to train the project team members. The plan also identifies the need of it.

 

  • Recognition and rewards – Recognition and rewards are the criteria for rewarding and promoting the desired team behaviors. To be more precise, recognition and rewards should be based on the activities performed by each person in a team.
  • Compliance – Compliance details the strategies for complying with regulations, contracts and Human Resources policies.
  • Safety – Safety procedures are listed to protect the team members. 

d. Dependency determination: – Three types of dependencies are used to define the sequence among the activities.

  • Mandatory dependencies. The project management team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. Mandatory dependencies are those that are inherent in the nature of the work being done. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as on a construction project, where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built, or on an electronics project, where a prototype must be built before it can be tested. Mandatory dependencies are also sometimes referred to as hard logic.
  • Discretionary dependencies. The project management team determines which dependencies are discretionary during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. Discretionary dependencies are fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options. Discretionary dependencies are sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic or soft logic. Discretionary dependencies are usually established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there are other acceptable sequences. Some discretionary dependencies include preferred schedule activity sequences based upon previous experience on a successful project performing the same type of work.
  • External dependencies. The project management team identifies external dependencies during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. External dependencies are those that involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. For example, the testing schedule activity in a software project can be dependent on delivery of hardware from an external source, or governmental environmental hearings may need to be held before site preparation can begin on a construction project. This input can be based on historical information from previous projects of a similar nature or from seller contracts or proposals

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