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MBA – PM0011 : Describe inputs and outputs for the following processes

a. Determining resource requirement for each activity

b. Calculating time requirement for each activity.

Answer: – Determining resource requirement for each activity:

 There are various resources used on a project. Some of which are people, machinery, money. And for each activity, to be accomplished we have a particular resource requirement. The reason for calculating this requirement is that there isa cost factor attached to each resource and to execute the project successfully, itis very important that we are aware of the cost components. The information or input to this process may be similar or different form of the previous processes. The basic inputs to this process are:

•List of activity

•Activity Characteristics

•Resource Colander

•Enterprise Environmental Factor

•Organizational Asset To outcomes of this process are:

•Activity Resources Requirement

•Resource Breakdown Structure

•Project Document Updated

Calculating time requirement for each activity:

Once we have the calculated the resources requirement based on their availability, we can get idea about the time it would take to complete the activity. In this process we use outcomes from previous processes and organizational documents to calculate the time taken or each activity. The major inputs required for this process are:

•List of activities

•Activity Characteristics

•Activity Resource Requirement.

•Resource Colander

•Scope Statement

•Enterprise Environmental Factor

•Organizational Asset the major outcomes of this process are:

•Activity Duration Estimate

•Project Document Updated

PM0011  : Describe the basic elements of a project plan.

Answer :- . The basic elements of the project plan are:

· Project Requirements: The project plan lists the basic requirements of the project and the objective of undertaking the project.

· General Approach: In this section the both the managerial and technical approach for the project is listed. It describes the project guidelines. This part of the plan describes the various approaches which need to be followed all through the project. These approaches may include the design document, the instructional designing approach etc.

· List of stakeholders: stakeholders can impact a project both positively or negatively. Thus it is very important to identify all the project stakeholders at the starting of the project. Project plan should contain the list of stakeholders and their relation to the project and the mode of communication to be followed for managing the same.

· Contractual aspects: This important section describes the reporting requirements, customer related information, list of resources supplied by client, liaison agreements, project review and abortion process, list of deliverables and project specifications, schedules.

· Resources: This section lists the resources required for the project, their availability, their cost.

· Risk: The risk management plan of the project plan talks about the various risks identified in the project. The alternative choices, mitigation and contingency plans. Steps to monitor and control the risks.

· Communication: The communication management plan talks about the communication methodology

· Quality: Every project should be evaluated against standards and by methods established at the project inception. This section describes these quality standards.

PMOO11  State and describe process of estimating resource & duration for the activity.

Answer:- As we are already aware that for every step we take has a time frame and every move needs some resource and both these parameters need to be considered before each action. Thus even though the activity is identified and sequenced, we get only partial schedule, to get further clarity on the schedule it is very important to understand the resource requirement and time required to complete each activity. The importance of the two parameters can be understood from the fact, that project management has two separate processes for find the two requirements. The two processes are :

· Determining resource requirement for each activity

· Calculating the time required for each activity

Determining resource requirement for each activity

There are various resources used on a project. Some of which are people, machinery, money. And for each activity, to be accomplished we have a particular resource requirement. The reason for calculating this requirement is, that there is a cost factor attached to each resource and to execute the project successfully, it is very important that we are aware of the cost component.

The information or input to this process may be similar or different form the previous processes. The basic inputs to this process are:

· List of activity: 

 · Activity Characteristics:

· Resource Calendar: this document gives us an idea of the resource availability for the project activities. It also gives information about the resource skillset.

· Enterprise Environmental Factor:

 · Organization Asset: 

To use this information and determine the resources for each activity, we require the methodologies and tools listed below:

· Expert Judgment: 

· Alternative analysis: There may be two or more ways to doing a particular task. Through this scrutiny, we try finding an alternative mode of accomplishing a task. And this may require a different set of skills, which can help incase of unavailability of the resource for the first set of activity and may save cost as well.

· Pre-stated estimating information: This includes production or resource rates pre-stated by the organization.

· Bottom-up Estimating: Incase the activity is complicated enough for determining the resource requirement; it can be further decomposed into the detail of the work to be performed. And resource requirement for the detailed work is determined. This way of calculating resource requirement for an activity by deriving the resource requirement for its sub-parts is called bottom-up estimating.

· Project Management Software: several soft wares for project management are available which assist in planning and managing resource requirements for the various tasks in a project.

The outcomes of this process are:

· Activity Resource Requirement: This document lists the types and quantity of resource required for project activities. It also list the skillset required and quality of material required and other characteristics of the resources.

· Resource Breakdown Structure: It is the hierarchical structure of the resources required for the project activities, further categorizing it on the basis of their types. It help project manager in maximum utilization of the resources and make sure no resources are wasted.

· Project document updated: 

 Calculating the time required for each activity

Once we have the calculated the resource requirement based on their availability, we can get idea about the time it would take to complete the activity. In this process we use outcomes from previous processes and organizational documents to calculate the time taken for each activity. The major inputs required for this process are:

· List of activities: 

 · Activity Characteristics: 

 · Activity Resource requirement: 

 · Resource Calendar: 

 · Scope Statement: 

· Enterprise environmental factors:

· Organizational Asset: 

The tools and techniques used for calculating the time duration of each activity ion a project are:

· Expert Judgment: 

· Analogous estimating: this estimating technique uses information from previous similar projects to calculate the duration. This methodology is cost effective and time saving but the result may not be very accurate.

· Parametric estimating: this technique uses historical data, i.e. information from similar previous projects and relationships between variables. This technique is more accurate then the analogous estimating.

· PERT (Program evaluation and Review Technique) Estimate: also known as three-point estimate, is more accurate then the estimating techniques mentioned before. This estimate is calculated using the following formula:

Expected activity Duration (tE) = (tO + 4tM + tP)/6

Activity standard deviation tD = (tP – tO)/6

Activity Variance = tV = (tP– tO)2/6

The range of duration can be calculated :

tE +or – tD

Where

tO  Optimistic or activity duration in best scenario.

tM  Most likely or activity duration resource availability and dependencies are as assumed

tP  Pessimistic or activity duration in worst scenario.

· Reserve Analysis: contingency reserves or buffer may also be included in the schedule accounting for uncertain schedule.

PM0011 : Explain the following

a. Rolling wave planning

b. Decomposition

c. Precedence diagramming method

d. Dependency determination

Answer:-

a. Rolling wave planning :

This is a technique which plans as and when the project unfolds. In this technique the plans are made with the upcoming events

b. Decomposition  :

This technique is about breaking project work packages into smaller more easily manageable units

c. Precedence diagramming method  :

This is a method for constructing project schedule network diagram that has rectangular boxes, depicting nodes and arrows connecting the boxes, depicting the logical relationship between the activities. this technique is also called Activity on Node (AON).

d. Dependency determination :

This technique is used to define the sequence based on the types of dependencies between the activities 

 


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