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Archive for the ‘MB0050 – Research Methodology’ Category

MBA – PM0050 : a.Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams

b. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data?

 Answer: a) Role of Graphs and Diagrams:

Role of Graphs:

Because graphs provide a compact, rhetorically powerful way of representing research findings, recent theories of science have postulated their use as a distinguishing feature of science. Studies have shown that the use of graphs in journal articles correlates highly with the hardness of scientific fields, both across disciplines and across subfields of psychology.

Role of Diagrams:

Recent technological advances have enabled the large-scale adoption of diagrams in a diverse range of areas. Increasingly sophisticated visual representations are emerging and, to enable effective communication, insight is required into how diagrams are used and when they are appropriate for use. The pervasive, everyday use of diagrams for communicating information and ideas serves to illustrate the importance of providing a sound understanding of the role that diagrams can, and do, play. Research in the field of diagrams aims to improve our understanding of the role of diagrams, sketches and other visualizations in communication, computation, cognition, creative thought, and problem solving. These concerns have triggered surge of interest in the study of diagrams. The study of diagrammatic communication as a whole must be pursued as an interdisciplinary endeavor. Diagrams attract a large number of researchers from virtually all related fields, placing the conference as a major international event in the area.

 

b) Types and General rules for graphical representation of data:

Graphical representation is done of the data available. This is very important step of statistical analysis. We will be discussing the organization of data. The word ‘Data’ is plural for ‘datum’; datum means facts. Statistically the term is used for numerical facts such as measures of height, weight and scores on achievement and intelligence tests. Graphs and diagram leave a lasting impression on the mind and make intelligible and easily understandable the salient features of the data. Forecasting also becomes easier with the help of graph. Thus it is of interest to study the graphical representation of data. The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types:

1) Bar graph

2) Pie graph

3) Line graph

4) Scatter plot

5) Histogram

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MBA – PM0050 :  Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.

Answer: For performing research on the literacy levels among families, the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of:1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household lifestyle etc.2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc.3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talks, districts, state and the nation. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies

The sources of data may be classified into:

a. Primary sources

b. Secondary sources. Primary Sources of Data


Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a sample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.

Advantage of Primary Data:

It is original source of data it is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Extensive research study is based on primary data

Disadvantage of Primary Data:

 Primary data is expensive to obtain

 It is time consuming

 It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled.

 It is difficult to administer

Methods of Collecting Primary Data:

Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socioeconomic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are

(a) Observation,

 (b) Interviewing,

(c) Mail survey,

(d) Experimentation,

(e) Simulation and

 (f) Projective technique.

 

Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters.

Secondary Sources of Data:

These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO,WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc.

MBA – PM0050: List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them?

Answer: – The three most commonly-used measures of central tendency and difference between them are as following.

Mean

The sum of the values divided by the number of values–often called the “average.”

  • Add all of the values together.
  • Divide by the number of values to obtain the mean.

Example: The mean of 7, 12, 24, 20, 19 is (7 + 12 + 24 + 20 + 19) / 5 = 16.4.

Median

The value which divides the values into two equal halves, with half of the values being lower than the median and half higher than the median.

  • Sort the values into ascending order.
  • If you have an odd number of values, the median is the middle value.
  • If you have an even number of values, the median is the arithmetic mean (see above) of the two middle values.

Example: The median of the same five numbers (7, 12, 24, 20, 19) is 19.

Mode

The most frequently-occurring value (or values).

  • Calculate the frequencies for all of the values in the data.
  • The mode is the value (or values) with the highest frequency.

Example: For individuals having the following ages — 18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21, and 23, the mode is 20.

MBA – PM0050 :

a.Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘Sample Survey.

b. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling

a. Census Survey vs Sample Survey

• Sample survey and census survey are method to gather information from people

• Census survey takes each and every individual whereas sample survey takes a representative sample

• Census survey is much bigger in proportion than sample survey

• Census survey takes more time and money

• However, there is margin for error in sample survey while census survey is more accurate. 

b. analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling: Multi-stage sampling: 

In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, as ample of the first stage sampling units is drawn, and then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling methods adopted at each stage. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated.

Sequential sampling:

Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks single or a group of subjects in a given time interval, conducts his study, analyses the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique. It is not expensive, not time consuming and not workforce extensive. This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. Due to the aforementioned disadvantages, results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population

MBA – PM0050 :

a.How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze.

b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design.

Answer: A. Research design for exploratory research:

Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”  

B. Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design:

The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study.

Dependent and Independent variables: 

A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables. In statistical term,

 They are also known as „discrete variable. For example, age is a continuous variable; whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute.

Extraneous variable:

The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an experimental error. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables.

MBA – PM0050 :  Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like?

Answer: The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems.

The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy):
Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems
Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem
Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence
The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types:
Primary research
Secondary research
In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research:
Qualitative research
Quantitative research
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results.
Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers.
Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee “more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share.


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