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MBA – PM0050 : Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.

Posted on: March 7, 2012

MBA – PM0050 :  Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.

Answer: For performing research on the literacy levels among families, the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of:1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household lifestyle etc.2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc.3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talks, districts, state and the nation. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies

The sources of data may be classified into:

a. Primary sources

b. Secondary sources. Primary Sources of Data


Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a sample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.

Advantage of Primary Data:

It is original source of data it is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Extensive research study is based on primary data

Disadvantage of Primary Data:

 Primary data is expensive to obtain

 It is time consuming

 It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled.

 It is difficult to administer

Methods of Collecting Primary Data:

Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socioeconomic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are

(a) Observation,

 (b) Interviewing,

(c) Mail survey,

(d) Experimentation,

(e) Simulation and

 (f) Projective technique.

 

Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters.

Secondary Sources of Data:

These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO,WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc.

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