Learning Curve…

Archive for February 2012

Eval is one-way, read only databinding.

Bind is two-way, read/write databinding.

PMOO11  State and describe process of estimating resource & duration for the activity.

Answer:- As we are already aware that for every step we take has a time frame and every move needs some resource and both these parameters need to be considered before each action. Thus even though the activity is identified and sequenced, we get only partial schedule, to get further clarity on the schedule it is very important to understand the resource requirement and time required to complete each activity. The importance of the two parameters can be understood from the fact, that project management has two separate processes for find the two requirements. The two processes are :

· Determining resource requirement for each activity

· Calculating the time required for each activity

Determining resource requirement for each activity

There are various resources used on a project. Some of which are people, machinery, money. And for each activity, to be accomplished we have a particular resource requirement. The reason for calculating this requirement is, that there is a cost factor attached to each resource and to execute the project successfully, it is very important that we are aware of the cost component.

The information or input to this process may be similar or different form the previous processes. The basic inputs to this process are:

· List of activity: 

 · Activity Characteristics:

· Resource Calendar: this document gives us an idea of the resource availability for the project activities. It also gives information about the resource skillset.

· Enterprise Environmental Factor:

 · Organization Asset: 

To use this information and determine the resources for each activity, we require the methodologies and tools listed below:

· Expert Judgment: 

· Alternative analysis: There may be two or more ways to doing a particular task. Through this scrutiny, we try finding an alternative mode of accomplishing a task. And this may require a different set of skills, which can help incase of unavailability of the resource for the first set of activity and may save cost as well.

· Pre-stated estimating information: This includes production or resource rates pre-stated by the organization.

· Bottom-up Estimating: Incase the activity is complicated enough for determining the resource requirement; it can be further decomposed into the detail of the work to be performed. And resource requirement for the detailed work is determined. This way of calculating resource requirement for an activity by deriving the resource requirement for its sub-parts is called bottom-up estimating.

· Project Management Software: several soft wares for project management are available which assist in planning and managing resource requirements for the various tasks in a project.

The outcomes of this process are:

· Activity Resource Requirement: This document lists the types and quantity of resource required for project activities. It also list the skillset required and quality of material required and other characteristics of the resources.

· Resource Breakdown Structure: It is the hierarchical structure of the resources required for the project activities, further categorizing it on the basis of their types. It help project manager in maximum utilization of the resources and make sure no resources are wasted.

· Project document updated: 

 Calculating the time required for each activity

Once we have the calculated the resource requirement based on their availability, we can get idea about the time it would take to complete the activity. In this process we use outcomes from previous processes and organizational documents to calculate the time taken for each activity. The major inputs required for this process are:

· List of activities: 

 · Activity Characteristics: 

 · Activity Resource requirement: 

 · Resource Calendar: 

 · Scope Statement: 

· Enterprise environmental factors:

· Organizational Asset: 

The tools and techniques used for calculating the time duration of each activity ion a project are:

· Expert Judgment: 

· Analogous estimating: this estimating technique uses information from previous similar projects to calculate the duration. This methodology is cost effective and time saving but the result may not be very accurate.

· Parametric estimating: this technique uses historical data, i.e. information from similar previous projects and relationships between variables. This technique is more accurate then the analogous estimating.

· PERT (Program evaluation and Review Technique) Estimate: also known as three-point estimate, is more accurate then the estimating techniques mentioned before. This estimate is calculated using the following formula:

Expected activity Duration (tE) = (tO + 4tM + tP)/6

Activity standard deviation tD = (tP – tO)/6

Activity Variance = tV = (tP– tO)2/6

The range of duration can be calculated :

tE +or – tD

Where

tO  Optimistic or activity duration in best scenario.

tM  Most likely or activity duration resource availability and dependencies are as assumed

tP  Pessimistic or activity duration in worst scenario.

· Reserve Analysis: contingency reserves or buffer may also be included in the schedule accounting for uncertain schedule.

PM0011 : Explain the following

a. Rolling wave planning

b. Decomposition

c. Precedence diagramming method

d. Dependency determination

Answer:-

a. Rolling wave planning :

This is a technique which plans as and when the project unfolds. In this technique the plans are made with the upcoming events

b. Decomposition  :

This technique is about breaking project work packages into smaller more easily manageable units

c. Precedence diagramming method  :

This is a method for constructing project schedule network diagram that has rectangular boxes, depicting nodes and arrows connecting the boxes, depicting the logical relationship between the activities. this technique is also called Activity on Node (AON).

d. Dependency determination :

This technique is used to define the sequence based on the types of dependencies between the activities 

 

You can check if constraints exist in a column in sql server  and if its not there you can alter table to add a constraint using below query :-

IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT  *  FROM sys.objects WHERE object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[dbo].[ConstraintsName]’))
    ALTER TABLE [dbo].[TableName] ADD  CONSTRAINT [ConstraintsName]  DEFAULT (newid()) FOR [ContactID]
GO

Happy Coding !!!

PM0010 : List the benefits of WBS? Need for risk management in an organization-comment.

Answer: –   WBS :- Work breakdown structure (WBS) is a fundamental component of project management process that helps in defining and organizing the total scope of a project using hierarchical tree structure. According to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK), ‘WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables’. The hierarchy structure approach of WBS helps the project team to know the requirements of total project more accurately and specifically. WBS can also be used to assign responsibilities and allocate resources to the project. It helps the team to monitor and control the project

WBS is the critical input to various project management processes and deliverables like activity definitions, project schedule network diagrams, project and program schedules, performance reports, risk analysis and response, control tools or project organization. WBS has several levels in its hierarchy structure. These can be further used as an input to the scheduling process that supports elaboration of tasks, activities, resources and milestones which can be cost estimated, monitored, and controlled.

Benefits of WBS

Work breakdown structure represents family tree hierarchy structure of project operations required to accomplish the objectives of the project. Tasks identified in the WBS collectively describe the overall project. It serves to describe the link between the end objective and activities required to reach that objective.

Need for risk management in an organization-comment.

The PMBoK defines risk management as the “formal process by which risk factors are systematically identified, assessed and provided for.” Risk management provides an opportunity and support to an organisation to gain and access better control over various factors of a project. They are:

· Time (planning/scheduling)

· Money estimate

· Quality control

· Information

Risk management helps the organisation to control and monitor various activities in a project. The following points describe the needs of the risk management:

· Promote an uninterrupted progression in the activities carried out within the project by taking appropriate measures, as well as to remove any interruptions as quickly as possible in the event of interrupts in the project.

· Instil confidence in the project team as well as project stakeholders and third parties.

· Promote communication within the entire project team.

· Support the decision making process of a project.

The Risk Management process is a generic guide for any organisation, regardless of the type of business, activity or function. It is an integral part of business planning. It also helps project sponsors and project teams to take informed decisions regarding alternative approaches to achieve their objectives and to reduce relative risk involved, in order to increase the likelihood of success in meeting or exceeding the objectives of the project. Risk management encourages the project team to take appropriate measures to:

· Minimise adverse impact on project scope, cost, schedule and quality.

· Maximise opportunities to improve the objectives of project with lower cost, shorter schedules, enhanced scope and higher quality.

· Minimise management crisis.

The effectiveness of risk management strategies varies for one project to another based on their risk profiles. The following points describe the applicability of different strategy:

For relatively low-uncertain projects, fast decision making can reduce the uncertainties from delays caused by regulatory changes, political changes and economic changes.

For project with high level certainties, purposeful postponement of some commitments and decisions can reduce the risks through acquisition of more and better information that lead to better decisions.

PM0010 : Describe the following quality control tools:

a. Ishikawa diagram

b. Flow chart

c. Pareto chart

d. Scatter diagram

Answer:-

  1. Ishikawa Diagram – also known as the Fishbone Diagram or the Cause-and-Effect Diagram, is a tool used for systematically identifying and presenting all the possible causes of a particular problem in graphical format. The possible causes are presented at various levels of detail in connected branches, with the level of detail increasing as the branch goes outward, i.e., an outer  branch is a cause of the inner branch it is attached to. Thus, the outermost branches usually indicate the root causes of the problem. The Ishikawa Diagram resembles a fishbone (hence the alternative name “Fishbone Diagram”) – it has a box (the ‘fish head’) that contains the statement of the problem at one end of the diagram. From this box originates the main branch (the ‘fish spine’) of the diagram. Sticking out of this main branch are major branches that categorize the causes according to their nature. In semiconductor manufacturing, 4 major branches are often used by beginners, referred to as the ‘4 M’s’, corresponding to ‘Man’, ‘Machine’, ‘Materials’, and ‘Methods’. Sometimes 5 branches are used (‘5 M’s’), with the fifth branch standing for ‘Measurement’, or even ‘M-ironmen.’ These ‘M’s’ or problem cause categories are used to classify each cause identified for easier analysis of data. Of course, one is not constrained to use these categories in fishbone diagram. Experienced users of the diagram add more branches and/or use different categories, depending on what would be more effective in dealing with the problem.
  2. Flow chart: – A typical definition of “Flow Chart” usually reads something like …A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. Each step anthem process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.
  3. Pareto Chart: – A Pareto Chart is “a series of bars whose heights reflect the frequency or impact of problems. The bars are arranged in descending order of height from left to right. This means the categories represented by the tall bars on the left are relatively more significant than those on the right” .The chart gets its name from the Pareto Principle, which postulates that 80 percent of the trouble comes from 20 percent of the problems.
  4. Scatter diagram: – A scatter diagram is a tool for analyzing relationships between two variables. One variable is plotted on the horizontal axis and the other is plotted on the vertical axis. The pattern of their intersecting points can graphically show relationship patterns. Most often scatter diagram is used to prove or disprove cause-and-effect relationships. While the diagram shows relationships, it does not by itself prove that one variable causes the other. In addition to showing possible because and-effect relationships, a scatter diagram can show that two variables are from common cause that is unknown or that one variable can be used as a surrogate for the other.

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1. Uninstall from “using Add or Remove” – control panel

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4. Click the “Babylon Toolbar” extension.
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