Learning Curve…


Posted on: August 22, 2011

Question:-What is XML ?
Answer: XML is the Extensible Markup Language. It improves the functionality of the Web by letting you identify your information in a more accurate, flexible, and adaptable way. It is extensible because it is not a fixed format like HTML (which is a single, predefined markup language). Instead, XML is actually a metalanguage—a language for describing other languages—which lets you design your own markup languages for limitless different types of documents. XML can do this because it’s written in SGML, the international standard metalanguage for text document markup (ISO 8879).

Question:-What is DOM?
Answer: Document Object Model (DOM) is a W3C specification that defines a standard (abstract) programming API to build, navigate and update XML documents. It is a “tree-structure-based” interface. As per the DOM specification, the XML parsers (such as MSXML or Xerces), load the entire XML document into memory, before it can be processed. XPath is used to navigate randomly in the document, and various DOM methods are used to create and update (add elements, delete elements, add/remove attributes, etc.) the XML documents.
Question:-What is XPath?
Answer: XML Path Language (XPath) is a W3C specification that defines syntax for addressing parts of XML document. XML document is considered as a logical tree structure, and syntax based on this consideration is used to address elements and attributes at any level in the XML document. For example, considering the XML document described above in answer to question 2, /abc:Employees/abc:Emp/@EmpID XPath expression can be used to access the EmpID attribute under the (first) Emp element under the Employees document element. XPath is used in various other specifications such as XSLT.

Question:-What is XHTML?
Answer: Is simple words, XHTML, or Extensible HTML, is HTML 4 with XML rules applied to it (each begin tag must have an end tag, attribute values in single/double quotes, etc.). However, the overall vision of XHTML is much more than that. In addition to using XML syntax for HTML, XHTML also encloses specifications such as XHTML Basic (minimal set of modules for devices such as PDAs), XForms (represents the next generation of forms for the Web, and separates presentation, logic, and data), XML Events (provides XML languages with the ability to uniformly integrate event listeners and associated event handlers), etc.

Question:-What is XML Parser ?
Answer: Microsoft’s XML parser is a COM component that comes with Internet Explorer 5 and higher. Once you have installed Internet Explorer, the parser is available to scripts.
Microsoft’s XML parser supports all the necessary functions to traverse the node tree, access the nodes and their attribute values, insert and delete nodes, and convert the node tree back to XML.

To create an instance of Microsoft’s XML parser with JavaScript, use the following code:
var xmlDoc=new ActiveXObject(“Microsoft.XMLDOM”)

To create an instance of Microsoft’s XML parser with VBScript, use the following code:
set xmlDoc=CreateObject(“Microsoft.XMLDOM”)

To create an instance of Microsoft’s XML parser in an ASP page (using VBScript), use the following code:
set xmlDoc=Server.CreateObject(“Microsoft.XMLDOM”)

The following code loads an existing XML document (“note.xml”) into Microsoft’s XML parser:
<script type=”text/javascript”>
var xmlDoc=new ActiveXObject(“Microsoft.XMLDOM”)


Question:- Some Limitation or Disadvantage of XML?
Answer: XML markup has a few disadvantages:
It can be verbose unless element and attribute names are chosen with care. In large documents the markup overhead need not be large, but in short messages it can be significantly more than the actual data, especially when the element or attribute names are concocted by machine.

Overlapping markup is not permitted (an element cannot start inside one element and end inside another): element markup must nest hierarchically.

Some of the software is truly mediocre.

Question:- How to add in XML document through XSL ?
Answer: XSL (the eXtensible Stylesheet Language) is far more sophisticated than CSS. One way to use XSL is to transform XML into HTML before it is displayed by the browser as demonstrated in these examples:
Below is a fraction of the XML file. The second line,
<?xml-stylesheet type=”text/xsl” href=”simple.xsl”?>, links the XML file to the XSL file:
<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”ISO-8859-1″?>
<?xml-stylesheet type=”text/xsl” href=”simple.xsl”?>
<name>Belgian Waffles</name>
two of our famous Belgian Waffles

Question:- How do I convert my existing HTML documents into XML?
Answer: Tidy is a command-line utility which runs on a wide variety of operating systems; it uses various command-line switches (parameters) to control its processing. At a minimum, it simply cleans up your HTML by ensuring that elements are properly nested and so on; it also warns you if your HTML uses non-standard code that’s likely to cause cross-browser compatibility problems. One of the most useful command-line options is -asxml (“as XML,” see?), which does what you seem to be asking. It will properly balance elements, per usual, but it also adds some extra information to the document. For instance, it tacks on an XML declaration, , and a statement, which unambiguously mark this as an XML document. To the root html element it also adds a namespace-declaring attribute that identifies all elements in the document as conforming to the specific XML vocabulary known as XHTML. It even forces all element names to lowercase, since the XHTML standard requires it.

If you’re asking about converting HTML to a less generic form of XML than XHTML, your task may turn out to be quite complex. For example, if you’ve been using HTML to mark up customer invoices, not only the customer’s name but also their number, item(s) ordered, quantity, and price are probably all wrapped up inside <p> and </p> tags. How do you know which “kind of paragraph” contains a given kind of information, so you can turn one instance of the p element into a custname element, another into custnumber, another into price, and so on? If you’ve been using CSS for styling your HTML, you may have supplied the different p elements with (etc.) attributes and so on; if that’s the case, you may be able to generate meaningful XML using an XSLT stylesheet. There may also be customized software to do the sort of conversion you want. Otherwise you’re probably looking down the barrel of an ugly gun.

Question:- What is a schema? What are the limitations of a DTD?
Answer: SCHEMA is nothing but METADATA. The schema holds all the information of the xml file that is to be deployed in the project. Metatdata is nothing about data about data since we know that xml is used for data representation language we will be able to understand what metadata is. Metadata includes the tags that is going to be exchanged to and fro from another xml file. DTD (DATA TYPE DEFINITION ) which supervises two conditions namely well formedness and closeness of the xml file. So the user should be aware of what tags he was put into use of this xml file ‘A’ should be intimated to another application’s XML file ‘B’, by then our xml file will interact with the another xml file, this is the major limitation and mandatory issue that the developers should follow.


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